VORTEX PROCESS TECHNOLOGY (VPT) ENABLES A FLUID TO FORM INTO AN ORDERED VORTEX MOVEMENT

Vortex Processing Technology (VPT) is a low-energy, high efficiency biomimetic disruptive technology which can radically improve water quality, reduce related energy usage and improve process operations in its targeted applications:

The strategic focus is on these primary applications of this technology

  • Physical water treatment in cooling towers
  • Water treatment for Ice Rinks, other water treatment
  • Aeration for water/waste, rivers, agriculture, aquaculture

Observed benefits based on existing customers using VPT and published Measurement and Verification projects include:

  • Water Savings
  • Energy Savings (Electric and Natural Gas)
  • Process improvements (improved O2 ppm, productivity/yield, etc.)
  • Chemical Savings – including chemical free cooling tower blowdown

EXAMPLE ASSESSMENT CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION (CEC) ELECTRIC PROGRAM INVESTMENT CHARGE (EPIC) PROGRAM

  • CEC electricity innovation investments follow an energy innovation pipeline program design
  • Funds technology demonstration and deployment, market facilitation to create new sustainable solutions, foster innovation and bring clean energy ideas to the marketplace
  • CEC selected the VPT technology based on a field assessment conducted by Cypress on behalf of Southern California Edison (SCE)

M&V demonstrated 5-6 % energy, 40% water and 33% chemical savings

  • Completed assessment in 2018 at two installations in the (SCE) service territory
  • Goals:
  • A) Measure and demonstrate the efficacy of an innovative water – energy nexus technology, called Vortex Process Technology (VPT)
  • Focus for this application is Cooling Towers & Evaporative Condensers
  • Reduce water, energy and chemical usage
  • B) Conduct a market knowledge transfer of that technology to a variety of commercial and industrial end users and stakeholders

COOLING TOWERS REPRESENT A SIGNIFICANT OPPORTUNITY TO REDUCE WATER AND ENERGY USE CALIFORNIA EXAMPLE

The water-energy nexus has been a focus of SCE and the CEC even prior to the ongoing California draught – saving water saves energy
• At site and embedded energy
• Reducing water usage in cooling towers, the ability to re-use blowdown water and monitoring performance cost effectively is one option
• The focus is on water cooled cooling towers and a physical water treatment technology (PWT) that has demonstrated a positive impact • Site Benefits: Reduced water, energy and chemical usage
• Potential System Benefits: Reduced embedded energy for water distribution and treatment

  • Example CA: Energy Power Research Institute (EPRI) estimates that 6,985 GWh or ~35% out of the total 20,061 GWh on cooling and refrigeration is used in water cooled equipment
  • If only 30% of the CA cooling towers were able to increase their Cycle of Concentration (COC) from 3 to 5 estimated water savings is over 625 millions gallons annually – and this does not include any possible re-use of blowdown water

VPT FOR COOLING TOWERS, INDUSTRIAL VORTEX GENERATOR FOR COOLING TOWERS (IVG-CT)

Evaluated* in California at:

  • 900-ton chiller
  • Results 12-month operations (8/17 – 9/18)
  • Water- Baseline
    • Average Cycles of Concentration (COC) 2.3
    • Annual Usage 6.5 million gallons
  • Water- Post
  • (COC) 7
    • Annual Usage 4.7 million gallons
    • Net reduction 30%
  • Energy- base on IPMVP B
    • Net reduction 5.5%

* Based on a comprehensive Measurement & Verification (M&V) plan the adheres to the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) standards was executed by a licensed P.E., CEM, CMVP professional

  • Currently installed by 50+ customers in in the EU
    • Successfully deployed and has achieved initial market adoption at installations in the EU: Breweries, Food Processing, Commercial Office, Data Centers, Ice Rinks, Chemical Manufacturing

Currently installed by 50+ customers in in the EU
• Successfully deployed and has achieved initial market adoption at installations in the EU: Breweries, Food Processing, Commercial Office, Data Centers, Ice Rinks, Chemical Manufacturing

  • 2000-ton chiller
  • Results 8-month operations (8/17 – 9/18)
  • Water- Baseline
    • Average Cycles of Concentration (COC) 3.4
    • Annual Usage 10.3 million gallons
  • Water- Post
    • (COC) 7.5
    • Annual Usage 8.6 million gallons
    • Net reduction 18%
  • Energy- base on IPMVP B
    • Net reduction 6.5%
  • After deployment of the IVG-CT, the evaporative condensers can be operated chemical (inhibitor and biocide) free, while guaranteeing operation
    • without limescale
    • corrosion
    • microbial growth and/or legionella
  • Discharge free draining of blow down water is possible.
  • Natural passivation of the zinc heat exchanger is carriedout without chemicals
  • Future possibilities exist for the reuse of drainage water as cooling water.
  • Aside from financial benefits, the IVG-CT technology contributes positively to the sustainability program.

OBSERVED BENEFITS IVG-CT PROJECT’S GOALS?

Water savings

  • Operating the cooling towers at higher COC (5 - 10)
  • Saves Water though lower make-up water
  • Depending on site water, can reuse up to 100% blow-down water for other purposes such as irrigation, lower sewer discharge
  • Earns customer water incentives

Reduce chemical use

  • Reduced operational costs of purchased chemicals and lower service costs
  • Reduced toxic elements in blow-down water
  • More sustainable, supports a circular economy

Save Energy

  • Better heat transfer, degrades and prevents cooling tower scale
  • Embedded Energy: Additional upstream/downstream kWh/kW savings from reduced water pumping and water treatment

Continuous Performance Monitoring

  • Monitoring and Control system integrated with delivered technology
  • Consistent with Best Practices
  • Web access and reports

TYPICAL CONFIGURATION IVG-CT FOR COOLING TOWERS

PROCESS OVERVIEW



TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION VPT

  • Based on a low energy use technology
  • The design enables a consistent and low energy method to achieve physical water treatment (PWT) water treatment in a variety of end use applications. Such as
    • Cooling Tower & Evaporative Condensers
    • Irrigation for indoor/outdoor agriculture
    • Ice rinks and ice making
    • Aeration of rivers, ponds and wastewater plants
    • Treating manure/slurry from diary farms
  • Pre-former: Inlet of the vortex generator provides smooth outward direction of the flow through toroidal motion toward a set of well-defined channels. Channels: The fluid is directed through a set of channels, each with vortex-forming geometry. Each channel delivers a very high velocity stream of vortex flow tangentially into a vortex chamber.
  • Vortex chamber: Vortices from the channels form a strong and stable vortex flow
  • Causing a strongly reduced pressure along the vortex axis with a very low central pressure There is very high pressure at the periphery and almost vacuum in the center

  • Micro-bubbles in water pulled into the extreme low-pressure chamber. Micro-bubbles that are present migrate towards the center where the lowest pressure is and accelerated due to the pressure gradient https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWcBEPlj2-I
    • The bubbles expand and combine in the center with a very low pressure
    • The strong hydrodynamic force creates cavitation changing the water balance and affects the calcium crystals in the water
  • As bubbles are removed a decrease in viscosity of 5%-17% occurs.
  • Heat capacity: + 5% for ice and + 3% for liquid water
  • Controlled Cavitation: leads to the formation of lime particles in hard water. The process results in low pressure and high temperature micro-zone (solubility of CaCO3 decreases) causing the dissolved calcium and carbonate ions to react and form colloidal calcium carbonate crystals. This increases pH and allows the particles to act as incubation sites for dissolved calcium and carbonate ions to grow on, in lieu of, metal surfaces
  • Fragmentation: Already formed lime particles fragment as they move through the pressure gradients and shear forces
    Precipitation- nuclei formation:
    • Calcium bicarbonate (CaHCO3)2 in the water is forced to precipitate out in the form of calcite (CaCO3) – primarily aragonite crystals which have minimal scaling properties – does not precipitate on warm surfaces.
    • Such particles act as seeds (crystallization nuclei) for new lime growth. New lime formation will add to the lime particles rather than cause lime-scaling on the equipment.

  • As the pressure increases towards the periphery the remaining solubility for CO2 also increases. When the pressure is increased towards the periphery there will be a difference in the pH level following the pressure gradient. In this case the pH level will decrease towards the periphery following the increased pressure.
  • The calcium ion precipitates and forms calcium carbonate CaCO3 at a specific pH level. The pH level varies from the center to the periphery where the calcium ion will begin to precipitate during the reaction with H2CO3 . The precipitation will occur in the moving water, within the VPT.
  • The calcium crystallization process in using VPT is due to the pressure gradient and the sheer forces inside the vortex. There is an interaction between water, the calcium ion and CO2. Since CO2 is more soluble in water as a function of pressure, i.e. higher pressure = higher solubility and makes the higher CO2 concentration slightly acid together in the water. Since the pH level varies along the pressure gradient so that there is lower pH at the periphery and higher in the center of the vortex the calcium ion precipitates and forms calcium carbonate CaCO3 at a specific pH level.
  • The calcium carbonate in this way forms Aragonite and Calcite hard crystals due to the dynamic treatment in the vortex with its high sheer forces. Therefore, this precipitate is not available to coat warm surfaces such as heat transfer surfaces, reducing lime scale and can be both filtered with the PVT skid and/or blown-down as part of the typical tower maintenance.

EXAMPLE – WITH NO NANO FILTRATION IVG-CT/10

(IVG-CT) FOR COOLING TOWERS AS A SIDE STREAM WATER TREATMENT

EXAMPLE WITH NANO-FILTRATION IVG-CT/10

(IVG-CT) FOR COOLING TOWERS AS A SIDE STREAM WATER TREATMENT